FE v19n4 artigo 6

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

The effects of neuromuscular performance and perceptual parameters in futsal athletes playing consecutive games

Efeito do desempenho neuromuscular e dos parâmetros perceptuais em atletas de futsal em jogos consecutivos

 

Cristiane Blausius Salvi Hübner1, Cristiano André Hübner1, Martim Gomes Weber2, Fernando de Souza Campos3, Renan Felipe Hartmann Nunes4, Gladson Flor Bertolini5, Lucinar Jupir Forner Flores6

 

1Western Paraná State University, Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR, Brazil.

2Physical Education Master’s Degree student, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR, Brazil.

3Marechal Futsal, Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR, Brazil.

4Department of Physiology, Clube Atlético Tubarão-SC, Tubarão, SC, Brazil.

5Faculty of the Western Paraná State University, Cascavel, PR, Brazil.

6Faculty of the Western Paraná State University, Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR, Brazil.

 

Received on: March 24th, 2020; Accepted on: June 30th, 2020.

Corresponding author: Lucinar Jupir Forner Flores, Unioeste, Curso de Educação Física Bacharelado, Rua Pernambuco, 1777 Centro 85960-000 Marechal Cândido Rondon PR

 

Cristiane Blausius Salvi Hübner: crisblausius@gmail.com 

Cristiano André Hübner: cristianohubner@gmail.com

Martim Gomes Weber: martim_92@hotmail.com

Fernando de Souza Campos: campos.mn@hotmail.com

Renan Felipe Hartmann Nunes: nunesrenan85@hotmail.com

Gladson Flor Bertolini: gladsonricardo@gmail.com

Lucinar Jupir Forner Flores: lucinar.flores@unioeste.br

 

Abstract

The present study aims to analyze the effects of consecutive futsal games on neuromuscular performance and rating of perceived exertion in athletes. Fourteen male futsal players (16.5 ± 0.51 years, 67.5 ± 11.1 kg; 1.73 ± 0.08 cm; 22.5 ± 2.3kg/m²) from a youth futsal team took part at the study. Our research monitored the team throughout the 4-day qualifying phase of the Campeonato Paranaense de Futsal (the Youth Futsal Championship of the State of Paraná, Brazil). The athletes underwent the following tests immediately after each futsal match: vertical jump test (Squat Jump (SJ)), Countermovement Jump test (CMJ), and a rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) session. Magnitude based inference analysis reported CMJ values likely lower after the 2nd match when compared with the results obtained after the 1st and 4th matches: (ES= -0.46 low) and (ES= -0.53 moderate), respectively. Furthermore, SJ values reported after the 2nd match are likely lower if compared with the outcomes obtained after the 1st match (ES= -0.56 moderate) and possibly lower when compared with the 3rd matches (ES= -0.45 low). PSE results were significantly different comparing the 1st and 2nd matches (p=0.04); the 1st and 3rd matches (p=0.01); and the 3rd and 4th matches (p=0.01). Moreover, the outcomes research obtained after the 1st match are very likely to be lower when compared with the results from the 2nd (ES= -0.97 high) and 3rd matches (ES= high); and almost certain lower when compared with the 2nd and 3rd matches (ES= -0.45 low). Test results research obtained after the 4th match are very likely to be lower than the ones from the 2nd (EF=-0.83 high) and 3rd matches (ES= 1.01 high). Thus, by investigating the youth futsal tournament, the study could observe under-17 athletes delivered a decreased performance in vertical jump tests throughout the 4-consecutive-day championship, which can be associated with an increased rating of perceived exertion.

Keywords: team sports, physical performance, fatigue, muscle damage.

 

Resumo

O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os efeitos de jogos sequenciais de futsal no desempenho neuromuscular e percepção subjetiva de esforço em atletas. Quatorze atletas do sexo masculino (16,5±0,51 anos, 67,5±11,1 kg; 1,73±0,08 cm; 22,5±2,3kg/m²), pertencentes a uma equipe de futsal juvenil participaram do estudo. A equipe foi monitorada durante a fase classificatória do Campeonato Paranaense de Futsal, com jogos realizados em quatro dias consecutivos. Os testes de salto vertical Squat Jump (SJ) e Counter Moviment Jump (CMJ) e percepção subjetiva de esforço da sessão (PSE) foram realizados logo após cada jogo. As análises de inferência baseada na magnitude demonstraram que os valores de CMJ no jogo 2 foram provavelmente menores comparado ao jogo 1 (ES= -0,46 pequeno) e ao jogo 4 (ES= -0,53 moderado) respectivamente. Além disso, SJ apresentou provavelmente menores valores no jogo 2 comparado ao jogo 1 (ES= -0,56 moderado) e possivelmente ao jogo 3 (ES= -0,45 pequeno). Em relação a PSE foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as médias relativas dos jogos 1 e 2 (p=0,04), 1 e 3 (p=0,01) e 3 e 4 (p=0,01). Além disso, o jogo 1 apresentou valores muito provavelmente e quase certo menores comparados aos jogos 2 (ES= -0,97 grande) e 3 (ES= grande), valores possivelmente menores no jogo 2 e 3 (ES= -0,45 pequeno) e mudanças provavelmente e muito provavelmente menores no jogo 4 comparado ao 2 (EF=-0,83) e ao 3 (ES= 1,01 grande) respectivamente. Em conclusão, o campeonato de futsal investigado, com jogos realizados em quatro dias consecutivos, ocasionou diminuição de desempenho dos testes de saltos verticais ao longo da competição associada com o aumento da percepção de esforço em atletas sub 17 anos.

Palavras-chave: esportes coletivos, desempenho físico, fadiga, dano muscular.

 

Introduction

 

Futsal is a sport characterized by high-intensity intermittent efforts and short recovering periods [1,2]. Moving fast and intensively is particularly important during a match [3-5], once aerobic (power and capacity) and anaerobic components are highly associated to an athlete’s good performance [1,2-8]. Although one’s aerobic system is predominantly important for the sport, anaerobic ability aptitude demonstrated in actions of muscular power is related to decisive activities within a match, such as sprint, jumps, braking, direction changing, and kicking [1,2].

In Brazil and other countries, futsal teams can play 2-4 matches a week on consecutive days in short tournaments [9,10]. High intense matches may lead to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), inflammation, elevated subjective perception of effort (SPE) and of muscle function in futsal athletes [2,11-13].

Though the need of adequate recovery levels for good match performance, the resting interval in-between matches may not be long enough to enable adequate recovery to futsal athletes [14]. Thus, vertical jump tests are sensible to identify fatigue after a futsal match [9,14,15].

In this sense, it is important to understand the physiological impact of consecutive matches in physical performance by analyzing athletes using practical reliable tests. Testing allows planning adequate recovery strategies and potentiating match performance. Therefore, the present study aims to identify the effects of consecutive futsal matches in the neuromuscular performance of vertical jumps and in SPE in futsal athletes.

 

Methods

 

Experimental design

 

The Ethics Committee on Research (Human Beings) of the Western Paraná State University (UNIOESTE) approved this research project. Certificate of Presentation of Ethical Appreciation (CAAE) #52557415.0.0000.0107, decree #1.838.509.

 

Participants

 

Fourteen male athletes (age = 16.5 ± 0.51 years, body mass = 67.5 ± 11.1 kg; height = 1.73 ± 0.08 cm; BMI = 22.5 ± 2.3kg/m²) took part at this study. The sample selection of the study was intentional and non-probabilistic: inclusion criterion was being an athlete who belongs to a youth futsal team that plays in regional and state championships.

Researchers carried out data collection throughout the classifying phase of the Campeonato Paranaense sub 17 anos de Futsal (Youth Futsal Championship of the State of Paraná, Brazil – under-17 male athletes). Athletes were used to systematically practice five times a week (~90-minute training sessions), at night, and play friendly and official games on the weekends. Athletes underwent 60 to 90-minute training sessions. Training focused on improving their technical/tactical and physical performance (specifically concerning their anaerobic and aerobic systems). Anaerobic training consisted of plyometric exercises, explosive strength exercises, and multiple sprints; aerobic training consisted of small-sided matches and running with long and short intervals.

 

Procedure

 

Participants underwent five experimental sessions with a 24-hour interval in-between sessions. In the first session, that took place one week before data collection, researchers carried out each athlete’s anthropometric analysis in order to characterize the sample of the study. From the second to the fifth sessions, subjects underwent vertical jump tests (Squat Jump (SJ)) and Countermovement Jump tests (CMJ) immediately after each match of the futsal tournament.

A scale with a stadiometer (Balmak model Labstore – maximum load = 150 kg, minimum load = 1 kg, 50g scale, Class III) measured the athletes’ body mass and structure, according with Guedes & Guedes protocol (2006) [16]: athletes were wearing their team uniform (t-shirt, shorts, and socks – no sneakers) [16]. Research also calculated their Body Mass Index (BMI) [17].

For the CMJ test, players stood in orthostatic position, with their hands on their hips, flexed their knees to a self-selected angle, and performed the concentric phase with as much power as possible. For the SJ test, players remained in crouched position, for at least 3 seconds, with their hands on their hips and their knees flexed at an angle of ~ 90º [18]. A Jumping Mat (Multisprint®, Hidrofit®, Brazil) registered the height of the jump of each athlete. Subjects jumped without moving their arms to isolate lower-limbs power. Each participant carried out three jumps with a 30-second interval in-between each trail. Research considered the best outcome out of the three jumps for analysis. Researchers treated jump height as a performance indicator [19], once it represents high reproducibility [20].

The study used Borg’s CR-10 scale [21] adapted by Foster et al. [22] (previously used in futsal athletes [13]) to obtain subjective perception of effort (SPE) indexes 15-30 minutes after each match. Athletes answered the question “What was your training session like?” using a scale that ranged from 0 to 10. To normalize internal load, such value was multiplied by the total time length each athlete played actively on the court during each match.

The study used the Shapiro-Wilk test to verify data normality, Levene test to evaluate homoscedasticity, and Mauchly test to check data sphericity. The research used measures of central tendency (mean) and dispersion (standard deviation) to describe investigation variables. An ANOVA of repeated measures compared the differences of CMJ, SJ, and PSE variables in the after game, as well as Bonferroni's post hoc test. The study adopted a significance level of p < 0.05 for every analysis and interpreted data by using the statistical program Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 20.0®. In agreement with Hopkins [23], the research used magnitude-based inference analyses to evaluate the differences of performance markers and SPE concerning each match. Researchers assessed the smallest worthwhile change (that is, 0.2 x initial standard deviation based on the effect size (ES)) and determined confidence intervals (CI) of 90%. Possibilities of quantitative changes (higher/trivial/lower) were evaluated qualitatively: <1%, almost certainly not; 1% to 5% very unlikely; 5% to 25% unlikely; 25% to 75% possible; 75% to 95% likely; 95% to 99% very likely; > 99% almost certain. The true difference was evaluated as ‘clear’ when chances of obtaining positive or negative results were > 10%. The study defined ES according to Cohen’s classification [24]: <0.2: trivial; 0.2-0.5: low; 0.5-0.8: moderate; >0.8: high.

 

Results

 

Tables I and II present the average values of CMJ and SJ after each match throughout the 4-consecutive-day championship. Research did not find significant differences for both tests (p>0.05) among matches. However, the magnitude-based inference analysis showed CMJ values concerning the 2nd match were probably lower when compared to the 1st match (ES= -0.46 low) and the 4th match (ES= -0.53 moderate). Furthermore, the 2nd match showed probably lower values of SJ when compared with the 1st match (ES= -0.56 moderate) and possibly lower compared with the 3rd match (ES= -0.45 low). Results were uncertain for every other comparison.

 

Table IValues of mean and standard deviation of CMJ performance after four-consecutive-day matches.

 

Caption: CMJ = Counter Movement Jump; cm = centimeters; J = match; ES = effect size; CI = confidence interval; % = percentual.

 

Table II - Values of mean and standard deviation of SJ performance after four-consecutive-day matches.

 

Caption: SJ = Squat Jump cm = centimeters; J = match; ES = effect size; CI = confidence interval; % = percentual.

 

Figure 1 displays the mean values of jumps (previously reported) and SPE of sessions after each match. The study found significant differences between the relative means of the 1st and 2nd matches (F=158.486; p=0.04); 1st and 3rd matches (F=158.486; p=0.01); and 3rd and 4th matches (F=158.486; p=0.01). Moreover, the 1st match presented very likely and almost certain lower values when compared with the 2nd (0/3/97; ES= -0.97 high) and the 3rd match (0/0/100; ES= high), respectively; the 2nd match delivered possibly lower values when compared with the 3rd match (5/21/75; ES= -0.45 low); the 4th match presented SPE results probably and very probably lower than the 2nd match (2/7/91 EF=-0.83) and the 3rd match (99/1/0; ES= 1.01 high).

 

 

aProbably low and moderate CMJ effects relating the 1st and 4th matches, respectively; aProbably moderate SJ effect relating to the 1st match; b Possibly low SJ effect relating the 1st match. *p < 0.05 significantly different SPE of session between the 2nd and the 3rd matches; #p < 0.05 significantly different SPE of session relating the 3rd match; avery likely and almost certain high effect relating the 1st match respectively; bpossibly low effect relating the 2nd match; cVery likely high effect relating the 4th match; dProbably high effect for SPE of session.

Figure 1 - Jump performance (centimeters) (CMJ colored circles; SJ white circles) and SPE (arbitrary units) (painted squares) after matches

 

Discussion

 

This study aims to analyze the effects of 4-consecutive-day futsal matches in the neuromuscular performance of under-17 futsal athletes through vertical jump tests. Its main results pointed decreased CMJ performance (2nd match vs 1st and 4th matches), decreased SJ performance (1st match vs 2nd and 3rd), associated with higher SPE after the 2nd and 3rd matches.

Relating jumping performance, such findings corroborate with Freitas et al. [25], carried out with male adult futsal athletes who played 4-consecutive-day matches. Results showed reduced performance in vertical jump tests, and decreased RESTQ-Sport score related to physical recovery throughout the competition, suggesting fatigue accumulation along the consecutive-day matches. Andersson et al. [26] investigated recovery time concerning muscular fatigue and biochemical alterations between two female soccer matches with an active or passive recovery interval in-between them. When comparing both matches, the authors pointed out significant performance decrease relating sprint, CMJ, and peak torque. They did not find significant differences in recovery standards between groups. Such results confirm Ronglan, Raastad & Borgesen [27] that investigated neuromuscular fatigue levels after three-consecutive-day matches, demonstrating significant reduction (4-7%) of strength and speed levels. The incomplete restoration of performance in-between matches and training sessions explains slow recovery rates.

Other collective sports have also suggested performance reduction in consecutive-match situations. When analyzing the efficiency of recovery strategies throughout a 3-consecutive-day basketball tournament, Montgomery et al. [28] reported performance decrease in sprint (0.7%) and agility tests (2.0%), as well as reduced vertical jump after the first day of competition, which remained suppressed even after tournament. More recently, Pereira et al. [29] analyzed game performance, muscular damage, and neuromuscular fatigue in three simulated matches carried out in a same day with rugby athletes from the Brazilian Rugby Team. Results demonstrated increased levels of creatine kinase (CK) after game, and increased SJ, CMJ, and strength development rates concerning pre and post consecutive games values. Gallo-Salazar et al. [30] pointed out neuromuscular reduction concerning lower limbs (jumps and speed) and higher limbs (isometric strength and movement amplitude) on the day after a consecutive tennis match competition.

Within a physiological point of view, increased capability of strength production may be associated with high-intensity efforts, such as maximum sprints, braking, and direction changing [1,2]. Furthermore, exhaustive exercises with movement patterns involving CAE may induce muscular alterations with consequent reflex alterations that may lead to performance decrease in vertical jump [31]. Horita et al. [32] pointed out increased sensibility to CAE tests concerning fatigue due to such exercises when compared with testes involving concentric actions exclusively. On the other hand, adaptations occasioned by constant specific training for a determined sport may lead to a protective effect of repetitive exercise, reflecting in lower damaging alteration in jumps [33]. In our study, vertical jump tests showed to be sensible when identifying muscular function decrease throughout matches, specially concerning SJ tests.

Performance decreased in the 2nd and 3rd matches as SPE increased in the same matches (figure 1). Such findings agree with other studies about team sports [12,34,35]. Rowsell et al. [34] associated performance decrease to SPE and lower-limbs muscular pain increase in consecutive matches. Furthermore, according to Moreira et al. [12,35], high SPE values may be related to stress increase in volleyball and basketball athletes after matches concerning the intensity and importance of a competition.

Reductions in physical and technical performance may be related to neuromuscular and mental fatigue [36,37]. Literature has been demonstrating that mental fatigue limits one’s influence over maximum voluntary activation and strength, explosive power, and anaerobic capacity [38,39]. Furthermore, prolonged periods of cognitive activity may also induce mental fatigue rise [37]. Therefore, it is likely that the athletes’ performance in vertical jumps after the 2nd and the 3rd matches relates to SPE increase. Once this scale represents a psychophysical measure [41], when approaching it, we must consider both stimulus (workload) and perceptive response. Smith, Marcora, and Coutts [39] demonstrated that an increased perception of effort mediates the negative effects of mental fatigue.

Thus, an athlete’s SPE seems to be an easy-applicable low-cost instrument that enables coaches and physical trainers to evaluate and compare stress levels related to several development aspects [1,2,12,13]. SPE is a scale that quantifies internal load. Internal load reflects the integration of peripherical (muscles and joints) and central signs (ventilation) that, when interpreted by using a sensorial cortex, produce the general or local perception of effort to carry out a determined task [21].

 

Conclusion

 

The 4-consecutive-day championship analyzed has led to neuromuscular performance decrease in vertical jump tests throughout the competition in under-17 male athletes, associated with their increased effort perception. Such results may help coaches and physical trainers planning and prescribing training, especially concerning the characteristics of such tournament, that requires high physical and mental effort during matches.

Deeper studies concerning physical and physiological responses (intensity, game actions, training time length) associated with technical aspects must be carried out for better understanding the relation of these variables.

 

Acknowledgements

 

We thank Fundação Araucária for granting part of the resources to carry out this study (Grant 215/2013).

 

References

 

  1. Nakamura FY, Pereira LA, Rabelo FN, Ramirez-Campillo R, Loturco I. Faster futsal players perceive higher training loads and present greater decreases in sprinting speed during the preseason. J Strength Cond Res 2016;6(1):1553-1562. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001257
  2. Miloski B, de Freitas VH, Nakamura FY, de A Nogueira FC, Bara-Filho MG. Seasonal training load distribution of professional futsal players: effects on physical fitness, muscle damage and hormonal status. J Strength Cond Res 2016;6(1):1525-1533. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001270
  3. Castagna C, D’Ottavio S, Vera JG, Álvarez JCB. Match demands of professional futsal: a case study. J Strength Cond Res 2009;12(1):490-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2008.02.001
  4. Buchheit M, Lepretre PM, Behaegel AL, Millet GP, Cuvelier G, Ahmaidi, S. Cardio-respiratory responses during running and sport-specific exercises in handball players. J Sci Med Sport 2009;12(3):399-405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.11.007
  5. Nunes RFH, Buzzachera CF, Almeida FAM, Silva JF, Flores LJF, Silva SG. Relationships between isokinetic muscle strength, measures of aerobic fitness, single sprint performance, and repeated-sprint ability in elite futsal players. Gazzetta Medica Italiana 2016;175(1):205-213.
  6. Helgerud J, Engen LC, Wisloff U, Hoff J. Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33(11):1925-31. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2003.10608354
  7. Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Marcora SM. Physiological assessment of aerobic training in soccer. J Sports Sci 2005;23(6):583-592. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400021278
  8. Spencer M, Bishop D, Dawson B, Goodman C. Physiological and metabolic responses of repeated-sprint activities: Specific to field-based team sports. Sports Medicine 2005;35(12):1025-44. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535120-00003
  9. Tessitore A, Meeusen R, Pagano R, Benvenuti C, Tiberi M, Capranica L. Effectiveness of active versus passive recovery strategies after futsal games. J Strength Cond Res 2008;22(1):1402-12. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31817396ac
  10. Miloski B, Freitas VH, Bara-Filho MG. Monitoramento da carga interna de treinamento em jogadores de futsal ao longo de uma temporada. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum 2012;14(1):671-9. https://doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n6p671 
  11. Moura NR, Cury-Boaventura MF, Santos VC, Levada-Pires AC, Bortolon J, Fiamoncini J, et al. Inflammatory response and neutrophil functions in players after a futsal match. J Strength Cond Res 2012;26(9):2507-14. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823f29b5
  12. Moreira A, Freitas CG, Nakamura FY, Drago G, Drago M, Aoki MS. Effect of match importance on salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A responses in elite young volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res 2013;27(1):202-7. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC. 0b013e31825183d9
  13. Milanez VF, Ramos SP, Okuno NM, Boullosa DA, Nakamura FY. Evidence of a non-linear dose-response relationship between training load and stress markers in elite female futsal players. J Sports Sci Med 2014;13(1):22-29.
  14. Kellmann M. Preventing overtraining in athletes in high-intensity sports and stress/recovery monitoring. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2010;20(Suppl 2):95-102. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01192.x
  15. Borresen J, Lambert MI. The quantification of training load, the training response and the effect on performance. Sports Med 2009;39:779-95. https://doi.org/10.2165/11317780-000000000-00000
  16. Guedes DP, Guedes JERP. Manual prático para avaliação em educação física. 1 ed. São Paulo: Manole; 2006.
  17. Bailey DA, Malina RM, Mirwald RL. Physical activity and growth of the child. In: Falkner F, Tanner JM. (eds). Human growth: a comprehensive treatise. 2.ed. New York: Plenum Press; 1986.
  18. Bosco C. La valoración de la fuerza con el teste de Bosco. Barcelona: Paidottribo; 1994.
  19. Sattler T, Sekulic D, Hadzic V, Uljevic O, Dervisevic E. Vertical jumping tests in volleyball: reliability, validity, and playing-position specifics. J Strength Cond Res 2012;26(1):1532-1538. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318234e838
  20. Nederhof E, Zwerver J, Brink M, Meeusen R, Lemmink K. Different diagnostic tools in nonfunctional overreaching. Int J Sports Med 2008;29(1):590-7. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-989264
  21. Borg GA. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1982:14(5):377-381.
  22. Foster C, Florhaug JA, Franklin J, Gottschall L, Hrovatin LA, Parker S, et al. A new approach to monitoring exercise training. J Strength Cond Res 2001;15(1):109-15. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200102000-00019
  23. Hopkins WG. Spreadsheets for analysis of controlled trials, with adjustment for a subject characteristic. Sport Science 2006;10(1):46-50.
  24. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale. 2 ed. Erlbaum; 1988.
  25. Freitas VH, Souza EAD, Oliveira RS, Pereira LA, Nakamura FY. Efeito de quatro dias consecutivos de jogos sobre potência muscular, estresse e recuperação percebida, em jogadores de futsal. Rev Bras Educ Fís Esporte 2014;28(1):23-30. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1807-55092014005000002
  26. Andersson H, Raastad T, Nilsson J, Paulsen G, Garthe I, Kadi F. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008;40(2):372-380. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31815b8497
  27. Ronglan LT, Raastad T, Borgesen A. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female handball players. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2006;16(1):267-273. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2005.00474.x
  28. Montgomery PG, Pyne DB, Hopkins WG, Dorman JC, Cook K, Minahan CL. The effect of recovery strategies on physical performance and cumulative fatigue in competitive basketball. J Sports Sci 2008;26(1);1135-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410802104912
  29. Pereira LA, Nakamura FY, Moraes JE, Kitamura K, Ramos SP, Loturco I. Movement patterns and muscle damage during simulated rugby sevens matches in National team players. J Strength Cond Res 2018;32(12):3456-65. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001866
  30. Gallo-Salazar C, Del Coso J, Barbado D, Lopez-Valenciano, A, Santos-Rosa FJ, Sanz-Rivas D. et al. Impact of a competition with two consecutive matches in a day on physical performance in young tennis players. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2017;42(7):750-6. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2016-0540
  31. Hermassi S, Ingebrigtsen J, Schwesig R, Fieseler G, Delank KS, Chamari K, et al. Effects of in-season short-term aerobic and high-intensity interval training program on repeated sprint ability and jump performance in handball players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2016;58(1-2):50-56. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06770-0
  32. Horita T, Komi PV, Hämäläinen I, Avela J. Exhausting stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise causes greater impairment in SSC performance than in pure concentric performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003:88(6):527-34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-002-0716-z
  33. Skurvydas A, Brazaitis M, Venckūnas T, Kamandulis S, Stanislovaitis A, Zuoza, A. The effect of sports specialization on musculus quadriceps function after exercise-induced muscle damage. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2011;36(1):873-80. https://doi.org/10.1139/h11-112
  34. Rowsell GJ, Coutts AJ, Reaburn P, Hill-Haas S. Effect of post-match cold-water immersion on subsequent match running performance in junior soccer players during tournament play. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(1):1-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2010.512640
  35. Moreira A, McGuigan MR, Arruda AF, Freitas CG, Aoki MS. Monitoring internal load parameters during simulated and official basketball matches. J Strength Cond Res 2012;26(3):861-6. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822645e9
  36. Mashiko T, Umeda T, Nakaji S, Sugawara, K. Position related analysis of the appearance of and relationship between post-match physical and mental fatigue in university rugby football players. Br J Sports Med 2004;38(5):617-21. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2003.007690
  37. Marcora SM, Staiano W, Manning V. Mental fatigue impairs physical performance in humans. J Appl Physiol 2009;106(3):857–64. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.91324.2008
  38. Rozand V, Pageaux B, Marcora SM, Papaxanthis C, Lepers R. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation? Front Hum Neurosci 2014;8(1):755. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00755
  39. Smith MR, Marcora SM, Coutts AJ. Mental fatigue impairs intermittent running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2015;47(8):1682–90. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0000000000000592
  40. Borg E, Borg G. A comparison of AME and CR100 for scaling perceived exertion. Acta Psychol 2002;109(2):157-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0001-6918(01)00055-5

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.


Direitos autorais 2020 Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia do Exercício

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-SemDerivações 4.0 Internacional.