FE v19n2 artigo 7

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Relationship among anthropometric and hemodynamic variables in public servants of Sergipe

Relação entre variáveis antropométricas e hemodinâmicas em servidores públicos de Sergipe

 

Patrícia Morgana Ferreira Santos1, Lúcio Marques Vieira Souza1,2, Jymmys Lopes dos Santos2, Matheus Amarante do Nascimento3, Clésio Andrade Lima2, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho Sampaio4

 

1State Secretary of Education, Sport and Culture of Sergipe - SEDUC, Aracaju/SE, Brazil.

2Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology, Federal University OF Sergipe - UFS, São Cristóvão/SE, Brazil.

3Department of Physical Education, State University of Paraná - UNESPAR, Campus Paranavaí, Paranavaí/PR, Brazil.

4Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Sergipe - UFS, São Cristóvão/SE, Brazil.

 

Received on: February 5, 2020; accepted on April 9, 2020.

Corresponding author: Lúcio Marques Vieira Souza, Cidade Universitária “Prof. José Aloísio de Campos”, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n. Jardim Rosa Elze, 49100-000. São Cristóvão/SE

 

Patrícia Morgana Ferreira Santos: patricia.morgana@gmail.com

Lúcio Marques Vieira Souza: profedf.luciomarkes@gmail.com

Jymmys Lopes dos Santos: jymmyslopes@yahoo.com.br

Matheus Amarante do Nascimento: matheusamarante@hotmail.com

Clésio Andrade Lima: clesio.ufs@gmail.com

Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho Sampaio: sampaiorac@gmail.com

 

Abstract

Physical activities have an important prophylactic effect against cardiovascular diseases, as they promote reduction in body weight and blood pressure levels, for example. Individuals working on administrative functions tend to be sedentary, with consequent risk of obesity. However, the relationship among anthropometric and hemodynamic variables is still inconsistent. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the correlation among anthropometric and hemodynamic parameters of public servants. This is an observational and cross-sectional study with a sample of 147 individuals. It was verified that normotensive men had higher body mass index than hypertensive men. In contrast, these individuals showed higher resting heart rate values. It was noted that none of the anthropometric variables were associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure; the associations verified were among anthropometric variables (r = 0.738 - body weight and hip; and r = 0.936 - abdomen and waist circumference). Also, no associations among anthropometric variables, blood pressure indices and resting heart rate were observed. In conclusion, although anthropometric variables are good predictors of body adiposity, they are not necessarily related to hemodynamic variables. The practice of physical activities should be encouraged within work routines, at appropriate times, aiming to improve healthy habits and anthropometric indicators.

Keywords: anthropometry, hemodynamics, public servants, cardiovascular risk, adiposity.

 

Resumo

Atividades físicas têm importante efeito profilático contra doenças cardiovasculares, pois promovem redução do peso corporal e níveis pressóricos, por exemplo. Indivíduos que desenvolvem trabalhos administrativos têm tendência ao sedentarismo, com consequente risco de obesidade. No entanto, a relação entre medidas antropométricas e hemodinâmicas ainda é inconsistente. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a correlação entre parâmetros antropométricos e hemodinâmicos de servidores públicos. É um estudo observacional e transversal com uma amostra de 147 indivíduos. Verificou-se que homens normotensos apresentaram maiores médias de índice de massa corporal em relação aos hipertensos. Em contrapartida, esses indivíduos demonstraram maiores valores de frequência cardíaca em repouso. Notou-se que nenhuma das variáveis antropométricas foi associada à pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica, observando-se apenas associações das variáveis antropométricas entre si (r = 0,738 - peso corporal e quadril; e r = 0,936 - abdômen e circunferência de cintura). Portanto, não se observou associações entre variáveis antropométricas, índices pressóricos e frequência cardíaca de repouso. Conclui-se que, apesar das variáveis antropométricas serem boas preditoras de adiposidade corporal, não necessariamente são relacionadas com variáveis hemodinâmicas. A prática de atividade física deve ser estimulada dentro das rotinas laborais, em momentos oportunos, buscando incentivo a hábitos saudáveis e melhoria dos indicadores antropométricos.

Palavras-chave: antropometria, hemodinâmica, servidores públicos, risco cardiovascular, adiposidade.

 

Introduction

 

It is well known the positive effects of regular physical exercise on reducing the risk of chronic degenerative diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes [1,2]. Part of these effects are related to the decrease in blood pressure levels of obese individuals [3], including overweight young women [4], thus exercising beneficial prophylactic effects on hyperinsulinemic profiles [5].

Studies associated high rates of cardiovascular diseases to arterial hypertension [6-8] and overweight [9], which corroborate the high incidence in several countries around the world. It is also necessary to consider that large portion of the population spends part of their lives in the work environment and many of these jobs are potential triggers for sedentary behavior [10,11].

In the study by Parry and Straker [12], results showed that a part of individuals with productive lives, including those that involve office work activities, presented sedentary behavior in 82% of the hours; while those who were not at work had 62%. This leads to the need of formulating proposals that involve changes in habits, focusing on reducing sedentary behaviors, aiming at improving the cardiometabolic health of these people, with a consequent increase in quality of life [13].

In this context, there is still inconsistency in the relationship between overweight and obesity, verified through anthropometric measurements, and the risks of hypertension in men and women in different segments of workplace [14-16]. Evidence points out that there is a strict relationship between anthropometric variables and long-term cardiometabolic health [17], however, in Brazil, there is a scarcity of studies involving working environment, especially in the Northeastern part of the country.

Only few studies analyzed the associations among anthropometric variables related to parameters of cardiovascular health of individuals in the workplace. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the relationship among anthropometric variables and blood pressure in public servants of an executive branch of the state of Sergipe.

 

Methods

 

Design and subjects

 

This study had a cross-sectional observational design. The sample consisted of 147 individuals of both sexes, categorized according to blood pressure values (mean age: normotensive men 38.87 ± 10.49 years, hypertensive 41.64 ± 10.35 years; mean age: normotensive women 44.57 ± 9.98, hypertensive 39.81 ± 15.47 years). Participants were chosen at random from among various sectors of an executive branch of the State of Sergipe. As inclusion criterion, age range proposed for the study was from 19 to 61 years, aiming to cover the largest number possible of participants; however, the mean age found indicates subjects close to 40 years old. Data were collected by trained evaluators using previously calibrated equipment. Data collection occurred during office hours between 8 am and 11 am. Analyzed variables involved personal information (age and sex); anthropometric measures (body mass index [BMI], hip circumference [HC], waist circumference [WC] and waist to hip ratio [WHR]; hemodynamic conditions (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP] and resting heart rate [RHR]).

All volunteers were informed about the objectives of the study and research criteria involving human beings, following the guidelines of Resolution no 196/1996, updated in Resolution no 510/2016 of the National Health Council and gave their signed consent prior enrollment. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), through process #41225414.4.0000.5546.

 

Procedures

 

Age and sex were recorded using a questionnaire. Age was arranged in years, considering a decimal scale from the date of birth to the date of collection.

Body mass was measured on a scale with a maximum capacity of 150 kg and precision of 0.1 kg (G-Tech, Glass Pro), while height was measured with a standard stadiometer (Wiso®, Brazil), with an accuracy of 0.1 cm. WC was obtained using a non-extensible measuring tape, positioned immediately above the umbilical scar and the reading made at the time of expiration, according to recommended standards [18].

HC was measured in the region with the largest perimeter between the waist and the thigh [19]. The WHR was calculated using the ratio between WC and HC and classified according to the cutoff points previously described in the literature [20]. Nutritional status was established from the BMI, defined as the division of body mass (kg) by the square of height (m).

Regarding hemodynamic variables, SBP, DBP and RHR were measured. To measure the blood pressure, an automatic oscillometer blood pressure measuring equipment (Omron, HEM-7200, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil) was used. Thereafter, three consecutive blood pressure measurements were performed in which the difference in SBP and DBP values was a maximum of four millimeters of mercury (4 mmHg). For this, a minimum of one minute was respected between each measure. An optimum blood pressure value <120/80 mmHg and an altered value ≥ 140/90 mmHg were considered. The procedures followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Hypertension [21].

 

Statistical analysis

 

In statistical analysis, descriptive statistical methods of frequencies were used. Initially, data were analyzed based on the comparison between normotensive and hypertensive individuals, according to sex. Thus, the independent t test for parametric variables and the Mann-Whitney U test for non-parametric variables were adopted.

Lastly, Pearson and Spearman's binary correlations, when appropriate, were also performed, aiming to verify the correlation between the sample's anthropometric and hemodynamic variables. The statistical difference was established as p <0.05. For all analyzes SPSS version 22 was used.

 

Results

 

Table I shows the comparison between participants stratified into normotensive and hypertensive individuals, by sex. No significant differences were found for almost all variables except, clearly, for SBP and DBP. In addition, normotensive men had higher means related to BMI in relation to hypertensive individuals, whose, in contrast, showed higher values for RHR.

 

Table I - Anthropometric and hemodynamic characteristics.

 

Source: Authors (2020); *p≤0.05

 

Table II shows the correlation analyzes between anthropometric and hemodynamic variables. It was noted that despite the relationship among anthropometric variables, no association was found among anthropometry, SBP, DBP and RHR.

 

Table II - Bivariate correlation of anthropometric and hemodynamic variables of hypertensive workers.

 

Source: Authors (2020); Note: *p≤0.05; **p≤0.01.

 

Discussion

 

In the present study, although strong correlations were found among anthropometric variables, there was no relationship among anthropometric and hemodynamic variables (i.e., SBP, DBP and RHR). However, other findings showed a higher prevalence of overweight in normotensive men compared to the hypertensive group, which presented higher levels of RHR.

Overweight and obesity are classified as serious public health issues of multifactorial origin, characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat, which has shown increased prevalence at international levels [20]. The unwanted increase in adipose tissue is often due to hypokinesia and high caloric intake, consequently resulting in negative health outcomes, such as increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases [22].

Nutritional status in this investigation was verified by the BMI. Lower values of overweight were identified in the hypertensive group; however, it is plausibly highlighted that the accumulation of adipose tissue over time is related to the risks of hypertension in men and women, as reported in clinical trials that analyzed individuals from different work sectors [14-16].

Regarding RHR, hypertensive men showed higher rates at rest. In this context, a prospective study analyzed and described gender differences among other hemodynamic reference variables such as SBP and DBP and observed the occurrence of higher values for males compared to the opposite sex [18]. It then indicates that adequate management, new formulations and more effective strategies must be implemented in this population when addressing these issues, especially regarding sex differences.

Another study, however, with a sample involving 290 hypertensive patients (62.1% women), found that hypertensive women had greater control of these disorders compared to men, despite the existence of negative biopsychosocial variables that could influence treatment adherence [23].

Blood pressure indicators are essential for the prevention and monitoring of future cardiovascular events. The tracking of these variables obtained through basic and applied research, results in the development of public health strategies for primary and secondary preventions in combating the harmful effects on health status [24].

In this study, strong correlations were found between anthropometric indicators (r=0.738 - for weight and hips; and r=0.936 - for abdomen and waist circumference), but it was not possible to observe these associations with the outcome variables (SBP and DBP), a possible explanation was the low sample size that did not allow to verify inferences.

The workplace is a susceptible scenario for interventions to reduce and interrupt sedentary behaviors aiming to improving cardiometabolic health and, consequently, the quality of life of these individuals [15,16].

 

Conclusion

 

There is great importance in monitoring and screening anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters in the national scenario, of studies with epidemiological samples that better represent cultural conditions of workers involved in different functions of organs of the executive branch.

To date, no study was conducted in the workplace with public servants in the State of Sergipe involving variables such as overweight/obesity obtained through different anthropometric measurements in cardiovascular health, thus reflecting on possible quality of life parameters.

Encouraging people to be physically active with implementations of physical activity programs in the workplace are pertinent approaches to deal with poor health habits. Especially in view of the associated risks between obesity, cardiovascular health and mortality. It is recommended the practice of physical activities at opportune times, within working routines and to encourage practices also outside of it, aiming to improve anthropometric indicators.

 

References

 

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