Movement velocity contributions to resistance training: a narrative review

Levy Anthony de Oliveira, Fernando Martín-Rivera, Marzo Edir Da Silva-Grigoletto


Introduction: Aiming a more effective intensity control in resistance training (RT), the measurement of movement velocity (MV) has gained attention from the scientific community and strength and conditioning professionals. Objectives: First, to analyze from a critical point of view the indicators that serve as a reference for the expression and control of intensity in the RT. These indicators created from the world of bodybuilding have been used for decades, without any relevant modification, to improve the physical performance of athletes from different sports. The second objective was to describe a rational and precise proposal for the best determination and control of intensity in the RT. Methods: Systematic review articles with and without meta-analysis and clinical trials on the measurement of MV in RT were selected. Conclusion: Monitoring MV allows more precise control of the RT intensity.

Keywords: exercise, velocity measurement, muscle strength.

Texto completo:



Bird SP, Tarpenning KM, Marino FE. Designing resistance training programmes to enhance muscular fitness: a review of the acute programme variables. Sports Med 2005;35(10):841-51.

Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Fundamentals of resistance training: Progression and exercise prescription. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36(4):674-88.

González-Badillo J, Marques M, Sánchez-Medina L. The importance of movement velocity as a measure to control resistance training intensity. J Hum Kinet 20111;29A(Special-Issue):15-9.

González-Badillo JJ, Sánchez-Medina L. Movement velocity as a measure of loading intensity in resistance training. Int J Sports Med 2010;31(05):347-52.

Spiering BA, Kraemer WJ, Anderson JM, Armstrong LE, Nindl BC, Volek JS et al. Resistance exercise biology: manipulation of resistance exercise programme variables determines the responses of cellular and molecular signalling pathways. Sports Med 2008;38(7):527-40.

Fry AC. The role of resistance exercise intensity on muscle fibre adaptations: Sports Med 2004;34(10):663-79.

Kraemer WJ, Fleck SJ, Deschenes M. Exercise physiology corner: a review factors in exercise prescription of resistance training. Strength Cond J 1988;10(5).

Braith RW, Graves JE, Leggett SH, Pollock ML. Effect of training on the relationship between maximal and submaximal strength: Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993;25(1):132-8.

Brzycki M. Strength testing-predicting a one-rep max from reps-to-fatigue. J Phys Educ Recreat Dance 1993;64(1):88-90.

Sánchez-Medina L, Pallarés J, Pérez C, Morán-Navarro R, González-Badillo J. Estimation of relative load from bar velocity in the full back squat exercise. Sports Med Int Open 2017;01(02):E80-8.

Sánchez-Medina L, González-Badillo J, Pérez C, Pallarés J. Velocity- and power-load relationships of the bench pull vs. bench press exercises. Int J Sports Med 2013;35(03):209-16.

Hoeger WWK, Hopkins DR, Barette SL, Hale DF. Relationship between repetitions and selected percentages of one repetition maximum: a comparison between untrained and trained males and females. J Strength Cond Res 1990;4(2).

Campos G, Luecke T, Wendeln H, Toma K, Hagerman F, Murray T, et al. Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones. Eur J Appl Physiol 2002;88(1-2):50-60.

Izquierdo M, González-Badillo J, Häkkinen K, Ibáñez J, Kraemer W, Altadill A et al. Effect of loading on unintentional lifting velocity declines during single sets of repetitions to failure during upper and lower extremity muscle actions. Int J Sports Med 2006;27(9):718-24.

Sakamoto A, Sinclair PJ. Effect of movement velocity on the relationship between training load and the number of repetitions of bench press. J Strength Cond Res 2006;20(3):523.

González-Badillo JJ, Yañez-García JM, Mora-Custodio R, Rodríguez-Rosell D. Velocity loss as a variable for monitoring resistance exercise. Int J Sports Med 2017;38(03):217-25.

Drinkwater EJ, Lawton TW, McKenna MJ, Lindsell RP, Hunt PH, Pyne DB. Increased number of forced repetitions does not enhance strength development with resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 2007;21(3):841.

Folland JP. Fatigue is not a necessary stimulus for strength gains during resistance training *Commentary. Br J Sports Med 2002;36(5):370-3.

Izquierdo M, Ibañez J, González-Badillo JJ, Häkkinen K, Ratamess NA, Kraemer WJ, et al. Differential effects of strength training leading to failure versus not to failure on hormonal responses, strength, and muscle power gains. J Appl Physiol 2006;100(5):1647-56.

Sampson JA, Groeller H. Is repetition failure critical for the development of muscle hypertrophy and strength?: Failure is not necessary for strength gain. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2016;26(4):375-83.

Stone MH, Chandler TJ, Conley MS, Kramer JB, Stone ME. Training to muscular failure: Is it necessary? Strength Cond J 1996;18(3).

Stone MH, Plisk SS, Stone ME, Schilling BK, O’Bryant HS, Pierce KC. Athletic performance development: volume load---1 set vs. multiple sets, training velocity and training variation. Strength Cond J 1998;20(6).

Willardson JM, Emmett J, Oliver JA, Bressel E. Effect of short-term failure versus non failure training on lower body muscular endurance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2008;3(3):279-93.

Richmond SR, Godard MP. The effects of varied rest periods between sets to failure using the bench press in recreationally trained men. J Strength Cond Res 2004;18(4):846.

Häkkinen K. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in male and female athletes during heavy resistance exercise. Int J Sports Med 1993;14(02):53-9.

Häkkinen K, Kauhanen H. Daily changes in neural activation, force-time and relaxation-time characteristics in athletes during very intense training for one week. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 1989;29(4):243-9.

Conceição F, Fernandes J, Lewis M, Gonzaléz-Badillo JJ, Jimenéz-Reyes P. Movement velocity as a measure of exercise intensity in three lower limb exercises. J Sports Sci 2016;34(12):1099-106.

Loturco I, Pereira LA, Abad CCC, Gil S, Kitamura K, Kobal R et al. Using bar velocity to predict maximum dynamic strength in the half-squat exercise. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2016;11(5):697-700.

Marcos-Pardo PJ, González-Hernández JM, García-Ramos A, López-Vivancos A, Jiménez-Reyes P. Movement velocity can be used to estimate the relative load during the bench press and leg press exercises in older women. Peer J 2019;7:e7533.

Pareja-Blanco F, Rodríguez-Rosell D, Sánchez-Medina L, Gorostiaga E, González-Badillo J. Effect of movement velocity during resistance training on neuromuscular performance. Int J Sports Med 2014;35(11):916-24.

Balsalobre-Fernández C, García-Ramos A, Jiménez-Reyes P. Load–velocity profiling in the military press exercise: Effects of gender and training. Int J Sports Sci Coach 2018;13(5):743-50.

Martínez-Cava A, Morán-Navarro R, Sánchez-Medina L, González-Badillo JJ, Pallarés JG. Velocity- and power-load relationships in the half, parallel and full back squat. J Sports Sci 2019;37(10):1088-96.

Muñoz-López M, Marchante D, Cano-Ruiz MA, Chicharro JL, Balsalobre-Fernández C. Load-, force-, and power-velocity relationships in the prone pull-up exercise. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2017;12(9):1249-55.

González Badillo JJ. Comité Olímpico Español, Federación Española de Halterofilia. Halterofilia. Madrid: Comité Olímpico Español; 1991.

Pérez-Castilla A, Piepoli A, Delgado-García G, Garrido-Blanca G, García-Ramos A. Reliability and concurrent validity of seven commercially available devices for the assessment of movement velocity at different intensities during the bench press. J Strength Cond Res 2019;33(5):1258-65.

Courel-Ibáñez J, Martínez-Cava A, Morán-Navarro R, Escribano-Peñas P, Chavarren-Cabrero J, González-Badillo JJ et al. Reproducibility and repeatability of five different technologies for bar velocity measurement in resistance training. Ann Biomed Eng 2019;47(7):1523-38.

McBurnie AJ, Allen KP, Garry M, Martin M, Thomas D, Jones PA et al. The benefits and limitations of predicting one repetition maximum using the load-velocity relationship. Strength Cond J 2019;1.

González Badillo JJ, Sánchez-Medina L, Pareja-Blanco F, Rodríguez-Rosell D. La velocidad de ejecución como referencia para la programación, control y evaluación del entrenamiento de fuerza. Murcia: Ergotech Consulting; 2017.

García-Ramos A, Pestaña-Melero FL, Pérez-Castilla A, Rojas FJ, Haff GG. Differences in the load–velocity profile between 4 bench-press variants. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2018;13(3):326-31.

García-Ramos A, Suzovic D, Pérez-Castilla A. The load-velocity profiles of three upper-body pushing exercises in men and women. Sports Biomech 2019;12:1-13.

Pareja-Blanco F, Rodríguez-Rosell D, Sánchez-Medina L, Sanchis-Moysi J, Dorado C, Mora-Custodio R, et al. Effects of velocity loss during resistance training on athletic performance, strength gains and muscle adaptations. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2017;27(7):724-35.

Pareja-Blanco F, Rodríguez-Rosell D, Sánchez-Medina L, Ribas-Serna J, López-López C, Mora-Custodio R et al. Acute and delayed response to resistance exercise leading or not leading to muscle failure. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2017;37(6):630-9.

García-Ramos A, Torrejón A, Feriche B, Morales-Artacho AJ, Pérez-Castilla A, Padial P et al. Prediction of the maximum number of repetitions and repetitions in reserve from barbell velocity. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2018;13(3):353-9.

Pareja-Blanco F, Sánchez-Medina L, Suárez-Arrones L, González-Badillo JJ. Effects of velocity loss during resistance training on performance in professional soccer players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2017;12(4):512-9.

González-Badillo J, Rodríguez-Rosell D, Sánchez-Medina L, Ribas J, López-López C, Mora-Custodio R et al. Short-term recovery following resistance exercise leading or not to failure. Int J Sports Med 2015;37(04):295-304.

González-Badillo J, Serna J. Bases de la programación del entrenamiento de fuerza. Barcelona: Inde; 2002.



  • Não há apontamentos.

Direitos autorais 2020 Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia do Exercício

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-SemDerivações 4.0 Internacional.